While US egg production has increased over the past 50 years, the industry has also been able to significantly decrease its environmental footprint, a landmark study by the Egg Industry Center shows.
Researchers conducted a lifecycle analysis of US egg production from 1960 to 2010 to evaluate environmental performance measures for the complete lifecycle from crops to hens to the farm gate. Study findings indicate that the environmental efficiencies are the result of a wide range of factors, including the reduction of natural resource use, improved hen feed, better disease control and advancements in hen housing systems.
"The US egg industry has evolved remarkably over the past five decades by incorporating new technologies to protect natural resources," said Hongwei Xin, agricultural and biosystems engineering and animal science professor at Iowa State University, director of the Egg Industry Center and the study's lead researcher. "Egg farmers have improved their production practices, allowing them to provide an affordable source of high-quality protein while using fewer resources and producing less waste."
Key results of the study found that compared to 1960; The egg production process releases significantly less polluting emissions, including 71% lower greenhouse gas emissions; Hens now use 32% less water per dozen eggs produced; today's hens use a little over half the amount of feed to produce a dozen eggs; while at the same time, today's hens produce 27% more eggs per day and are living longer.
Due to increased feed efficiency, advancements in hen housing and manure management, egg farms now use less water and energy on a daily basis and release less polluting emissions. Every aspect of the egg production process, from cultivating feed to raising the laying hens, has led to a reduced environmental footprint.
With the growing US population and egg demand on the rise, egg farmers play an important role in providing an abundant and affordable source of high-quality protein.
"The US population has increased by 72% over the past 50 years, but efficiencies in egg production have enabled us to meet the demands of the growing population with just 18 percent more hens, while also leaving a smaller environmental footprint," said Bob Krouse, an egg farmer for Midwest Poultry Services in Indiana. "Egg farmers are now in a position to help fulfill the growing need for an affordable and nutritious source of protein in an environmentally responsible manner."
Efforts to further improve feed efficiency, hen housing facilities and manure management will facilitate even greater environmental footprint reductions in the future. The study was funded by the American Egg Board, the US Poultry and Egg Association, the
United Egg Association -- Allied and the Egg Industry Center.
To obtain data for 2010, researchers conducted anonymous surveys with egg farmers and collected data on 57.1 million young hens and 92.5 million laying hens. For more information, visit www.incredibleegg.org or www.eggindustrycenter.org.