Mycoplasma turkey venereal disease
Species affected: Turkeys.
Age affected: Mainly breeders, poults and young can also become affected.
Causes: Mycoplasma meleagridis, M. iners. Spread by mating via semen; transovarian route to progeny; and laterally among poults by aerosol.
Effects: Signs include high embryonic mortality, stunted growth, air sacculitis and lameness. Hock joint swelling, deformation of cervical vertebrae and feather deformities may occur.
It spreads through artificial insemination of turkeys with contaminated semen. Breeders are susceptible to this chronic disease, often subclinically and pass organism to poults, which show lameness and feather deformities. The agents involved in the aetiology of this disease include –I- M. meleagridis and M. iowae.
Mode of transmission
Spread by mating via semen or transovarian to progeny and laterally among poults by aerosol.
Signs include high embryonic mortality, stunted growth, air sacculitis, and lameness (bowing and twisting of legs and shortening of the tarseometatarsal bone). Hock joint swelling, deformation of cervical vertebrae, and feather deformities may occur.
Lesions include skeletal deformities especially of the neck and legs and air sacculitis.
Diagnosis is by serology (ELISA or HI test) and/or isolation of organism from lesions. It simulates other mycoplasma infections and nutritional deficiencies.
Prevention is by dipping eggs in tylan or heating eggs to kill mycoplasma in small hatcheries. Depopulate infected breeders, hatch only MM or MI clean flocks and/or inject poults or eggs with antibiotics and/or treat in the feed or water.
Medications include Tylosin or LS-50® in water, quinolones, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, tiamulin, or spiramycin.