Occurrence: Worldwide. More prevalent in late summer, autumn and winter.
Species affected: Turkeys, chickens, ducks, geese, birds of prey.
Age affected: Young to adults.
Causes: Gram-negative, spore-forming bacterium- Pasturella multocida is spread by other livestock, cats, dogs and rodents. Respiratory spread and cannibalism are important. It is a stress disease occurring at point of lay and with seasonal change. Peractute death without signs can occur. Acute disease is manifest as high fever, thirst, cyanosis, anorexia and ruffled feathers. Chronic symptoms are torticollis (backwards retraction of head and neck), emaciation, severe mortality, enlargement of wattles, combs, legs, footpads and wing joints. Swollen sinuses, hocks and joints, dehydration, respiratory distress, drop in egg production and hatchability can also occur.