Occurrence: Worldwide.
Species affected: Broilers, commercial layer pullets. Age affected: 3-6 weeks.
Causes: Bacterial toxins- Clostridium perfringens toxins Types A, C-alpha and C-beta. The organism is transmitted by soil, dust, litter and faeces. Can be induced by choice of raw materials in feed and /or coccidiosis.
Effects: Ataxia, intoxication, diarrhoea, depression, ruffled feathers, reluctance to move. It may also cause dysbacteriosis, leading to vitamin or mineral deficiency.

Special note: It may cause malabsorption syndrome leading to vitamin or mineral deficiency. Coccidia often cause intestinal lesions followed by Clostridium induced enteritis.